Top 120 Cyber Security Interview Questions & Answers in 2024


Cyber security positions have considerably taken the top list in the job market. Candidates vying for elite positions in the field of cyber security certainly need a clear-cut and detailed guide to channeling their preparation for smooth career growth, beginning with getting a job. We have curated the top cyber security interview questions that will help candidates focus on the key areas. We have classified the regularly asked cyber security interview questions here, in this article into different levels starting from basic general questions to advanced technical ones.

Before we move on to the top cyber security interview questions, it is critical to reflect on the vitality of cyber security in our modern times and how cyber security professionals are catering to the needs of securing a safe cyber ecosystem. 

Criticality of Cyber security for A Save Digital Ecosystem

The times we live in is defined by the digital transition, in which the internet, electronic devices, and computers have become an integral part of our daily life. Institutions that serve our daily needs, such as banks and hospitals, now rely on internet-connected equipment to give the best possible service. A portion of their data, such as financial and personal information, has become vulnerable to illegal access, posing serious risks. Intruders utilize this information to carry out immoral and criminal goals.

Cyber-attacks have jeopardized the computer system and its arrangements, which has now become a global concern. To safeguard data from security breaches, a comprehensive cyber security policy is needed now more than ever. The rising frequency of cyber-attacks has compelled corporations and organizations working with national security and sensitive data to implement stringent security procedures and restrictions.

Cyber Security Interview Questions

Top Cyber Security Interview Questions which are mostly asked in an interview:

  1. What is a Firewall?
  2. What Exactly is Malware?
  3. What is Forward Secrecy?
  4. What do you Mean by Phishing?
  5. Why is Cyber Security Important? 
  6. What are the Types of Cyber Security?
  7. Which is More Reliable: SSL or HTTPS?
  8. What is a Firewall and why is it used?
  9. How can you Differentiate Between Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing?

What is the definition of Cyber Security?

Computers, mobile devices, servers, data, electronic systems, networks, and other systems connected to the internet must be protected from harmful attacks. Cybersecurity, which is a combination of the words "cyber" and "security," provides this protection. 'Cyber' imbibes the vast-ranging technology with systems, networks, programs, and data in the aforementioned procedure. The phrase "security" refers to the process of protecting data, networks, applications, and systems. In a nutshell,

cyber security is a combination of principles and approaches that assist prevent unwanted access to data, networks, programs, and devices by meeting the security needs of technological resources (computer-based) and online databases.

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Key Cyber Security Interview Questions along with detailed answers

General and Basic Cyber Security Interview Questions

1. Why is Cyber Security Important? 

Cyber security aims at keeping data safe and secure from cyber-attacks to protect and safeguard data from cyber-attacks. The CIA trio model that forms an integral part of cyber security helps develop policies that offer solutions to this problem of information security architecture. A security breach breaks one of the CIA trio principles. It carries you through several aspects of IT security.

These can be summarized as-


It prevents unauthorized access to data. It makes sure that the data is available to a person authorized to it and maintains limited access to others. It keeps the data from insecure hands through processes like data encryption.


This principle assures the genuine nature of data. It covers any unwanted changes made by threat actors and protects against the loss of sensitive data. It focuses on the genuine source of information.


The principal assures availability of information to those who have access to it. It makes sure that cyber-attacks are not able to obstruct these accesses.

2. Difference Between Threat- Vulnerability – Attacks?

A threat is something capable of destroying or stealing data and disrupting operations or causing general harm example- phishing, breach of data, malware etc.

Effective mitigation and informed decisions could be taken only if we understand these threats. Threat intelligence provides required information regarding these threats.

Vulnerability denotes a flaw in the software, procedure, or hardware which can be used by the threat actors to achieve their objectives. Physical vulnerabilities include Public exposure to network equipment, vulnerabilities of software, and human vulnerabilities. Identifying, reporting, and repairing the vulnerabilities are a part of the process of vulnerability management. No remedy has yet been arranged for a zero-day vulnerability.

Risk is formed with the combination of the possibility of a threat and the consequence of vulnerability.

3. What Does XSS Stand for? How can it be Prevented?

XSS (cross-site scripting ) is a web security flaw allowing the attacker to manipulate the user interaction using a susceptible application. The attacker gets around the same-origin policy by keeping the websites separated from each other. The attacker impersonates the victim and executes actions in his place and accesses his data. In case of privileges access to the application, the attacker gets hold of its functionality and data.

In some instances, the prevention of this process is simple but it can be difficult in other situations. Its use depends totally on the sophistication of the application and how the user-controlled data is used. You will need the following to prevent the vulnerabilities of XSS- 

  • Filter the input on arrival. 
  • Encode the data on the output
  • Use relevant headers for the response. 
  • Content security policy

4. What is a Firewall?

A firewall is a barrier between a LAN and the Internet. The private sources reduce security threats while remaining private and they manage the inbound and outbound traffic the point of connection between the two is the place with the most vulnerability where the network traffic is in a condition to get filtered using hardware and software. The firewall works in two modes- one with network layer filters and the other with network layer proxy servers.

5. Define VPN?

VPN stands for the virtual private network. You get the facility to establish an encrypted connection to connect your computer to a private network without displaying your IP address. You can share data safely and use the web services with a secure online identity.

The devices and network use VPN as an encrypted link connecting a device and a network through Internet as a medium. This encryption helps the secure transmission of sensitive data and gives protection against the transmission of sensitive data. It protects against illegal eavesdropping as the user can work remotely. VPN technology is commonly used in a corporate setting. 

6. Difference Between Black Hat, White Hat, and Grey Hat Hackers?

Black hat hackers are also known as crackers who make attempts to obtain unauthorized access to a system so that they may disrupt its operations or steal critical data. It always remains illegal due to its malicious intentions which included theft of company data, privacy violation, system damage, and network blockage.


White hat hackers are ethical hackers who never intend to harm the system, on the contrary, they cover the glitches in your system network. Ethical hacking is counted among one of the most difficult professions in the IT business. Several businesses hire them for their vulnerability assessments.

Grey hat hackers have the characteristics of black and white hat hacking. They execute their work without any malice, on the contrary, they do it for amusement. They can exploit a security flaw without getting noticed by the owner. They aim to get the attention of the owner in return for gratitude or a small reward.

7. What are the Types of Cyber Security?

A company comprises assets made up of a variety of systems. These systems are composed of a sturdy cybersecurity position making coordinated actions necessary. Following this cyber security Is further divided into the following domains-

 Security of Network

The computer is secured from unauthorized access by intruders or misuse or disruption of hardware and software. It secures the system from external and internal threats.

Security of Application

The software and the devices are saved from malicious attacks. You can keep your applications updated to make them secure against threats.  

Security of Data

Strong data storage enables you to ensure data integrity and privacy in the process of storage and transport.

Management of Identity

Each individual has a limitation to his accessibility inside an organization. The data accessibility can be restricted according to the job role of an individual in the company.

Security During Operation

This helps you in the process of analysis and decision making regarding data security and data handling of assets. Data is stored in encrypted form to fulfill this aspiration. 

Security of Mobile

The organizational and personal data held on devices ex- mobile device, PC, laptop etc which attract a lot of hostile attacks. Unauthorised access, theft of device, malware intrusion attract these dangers. 

Cloud Security

It provides security to the digital environment data of an organization. It employs several cloud service providers such as AWS, Azure, Google and others to gain protection against various threats

8. What do you Mean by a Botnet?

Collection of devices ex- servers, PCs, mobile phones connected by internet which are infected with malware and are in their control are termed as Botnet. It helps steal data, send spam attacks such as the launch of distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks and the user gets access to the device and its connection.

9. What do you Mean by Honeypots?

Honey pots are used to detect the methods of different attackers who attempt to exploit. This concept can be utilized by firms and governments to test the vulnerability of their network.

10. How can you Differentiate Between Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing?

Vulnerability assessment and penetration testing are the methods used to serve the purpose of security of the network environment. In the process of vulnerability assessment, the vulnerabilities are defined, detected and prioritized and the organizations are provided with the necessary information to correct the flaws.    

Penetration Testing is also termed ethical hacking or pen-testing. It identifies vulnerabilities in a network, in any system, in an application or in any other system which prevents attackers and save them from exploitation. Generally, it supplements a web application firewall about web application security (WAF).

11. What is the Meaning of a Null Session?

A null session denotes when a user is not able to get access due to a wrong user name or password. It provides security to the apps as it does not give access to users not having access to it.

12. What are the Names of a Few Common Cyber Security Attacks?

Following are the types of cyber security attacks

  • Malware 
  • Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) 
  • Denial-of-Service (DoS)
  • Attack on Domain Name System
  • Man-in-the-Middle Attacks 
  • SQL Injection Attack 
  • Phishing
  • Session Hijacking
  • Brute Force

13. What is the Meaning of Brute Force in the Context of Cyber Security?

Brute force stands for a cryptographic assault that guessed the potential combinations through a trial and error approach which gives you a proper result after all the searches. Cybercriminals are fond of this exploit through which they get access to passwords, login details, keys and Pins. The hackers can implement it very easily without much trouble.

14. What do you Mean by Shoulder Surfing?

Shoulder surfing occurs when you type information in a semi-public place and you witness something peering on the screen.

15. What do you Mean by Phishing?

Phishing is now treated as a cyber-crime where the senders bear a legitimate identity ( ex- PayPal, eBay, friends or co-workers)they target you with an e-mail or phone call or a text message and convince you to click on the link. This artificial link carries you to a fake website and you provide your personal information there thinking it to be an original website. This way they get access to your accounts.

You can secure yourself from these fishing activities in the following manner-

  • Do not provide your personal information on unknown webpages
  • Cross-check the security of the website
  • Use firewalls.
  • Use Toolbar to protect yourself from Anti-Phishing

16. Differentiate between Hashing and Encryption?


  • It converts data to smaller values (fixed) and then uses them to represent original data.
  • The hash code or key is not convertible to the original information. The hash code is compared and can be mapped. The information is identical in the condition of hash code being the same or the information is identical. Retrieving original data is not possible.
  • It is more secure if compared with encryption.
  • Its basic goal is to index and retrieve data from a database.
  • This data is short and constant (in length) it does not show any increase in length when the length of information increases. Ex- SHA256 algorithm


  • This technique encodes data securely with the objective of providing original data to the authorized user only.
  • The original data can be extracted only if you know the original encryption key and technique.
  • Not as much secure as Hashing.
  • It transforms data to keep it hidden from others.
  • The encrypted data is of undefined also expands as the data grows.

Example RSA, AES algorithm

17. What is the meaning of 'two factor authentication'?

'Two step verification' is a method in which the users use two independent authentication factors to validate their identity. This is helpful in protecting the user’s credentials and the resources accessible to the user. A user gives only one authentication (a password or a passcode) in Single factor authentication (SFA) which provides lower level of security when compared to the Two Factor Verification (TFA). The TFA adds an additional layer to the authentication process and the attacker is not able to do anything even if he is aware of the password of the device or online accounts.

18. How to save yourself from Brute Force Attack?

It is better to have a robust password policy. Web applications and web servers should enforce strong passwords. A stand user account must contain minimum eight characters which includes characters, numbers, upper case and lowercase alphabets, special characters. Servers should make it compulsory to update the passwords on regular basis.

Following are the methods to avoid Brute Force attack-

  • Only limited failed login attempts
  • Make the root user unreachable by altering the sshd_config file.
  • Default port is not safe for use. Use sshd_ configuration file instead.
  • Use Captcha.
  • Limit the number of logins to a certain IP address or range of IP addresses.
  • Use two factor authentication.
  • Unique loggings for URLs.
  • Keep yourself updated with the server logs.

19. What is the Meaning of Man-in-the-Middle Attack?

It is a kind of threat where a communication or data transmission is wiretrapped by a criminal. They obtain sensitive information once they enter a two-way conversation and respond in different ways at a later stage. This attack is made with the objective of acquiring company’s or customer’s personal information. An unprotected wi-fi may allow the cybercriminal to intercept data which passes from target device to the network.

20. What is the Difference Between Information Protection and Information Assurance?

Information protection is helpful in protecting data from unauthorized access by using encryption, security software, and other methods.

Information Assurance maintains data's integrity by maintaining its availability, authentication, and secrecy.  

Advanced Cyber Seurity Interview Questions

Candidates must have a thorough knowledge of the basic principles. While those are the few cyber security interview questions centered around the basic and general concepts, it is critical for prospective candidates to be prepared with technical knowledge with specializations in the varying elements of cyber security like Networking, Software and Programming, cryptography, cyber-attacks, applications, and Operating systems, etc.

Let us now list out the advanced cyber security interview questions that would be skills and technical-centered.

21. What is the Difference Between VPN and VLAN

VLAN’s are used to consolidate the dispersed remote sites into a single broadcast domain? On the other hand VPN’s transmit secure data between the same organization or different companies. It is also used by individuals to full fill their needs.  

A VLAN is a subtype of VPN (Virtual private network) which creates a virtual tunnel to secure data transfer over the internet.

It is more advanced in features due to encryption and anonymization due to which it is a bit more expensive. It segments a network, network into logical sections for easier management but does not have the security characteristics of a VPN.

A virtual local area network reduces the requirement of numerous routers and the cost of their deployment. IT focuses on the improvement of the overall efficiency of the network.

22. What is the Meaning of Perimeter-Based and Data-Based Protection?

‘perimeter-based cyber security puts security measures to safeguard the company network from hackers. It remains vigil and examines the people who make an attempt to break into the network and it neutralizes the intrusion attempts.

‘Data-based protection’ is the use of security measures for the data used by the user. It remains unaffected by the network connectivity. You get the facility of safeguarding your data irrespective of its place of storage, the people accessing it and the connection used to access it.

23. Which is More Reliable: SSL or HTTPS?

SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) allows secure communication between two parties using the internet. It executes its operations on top of HTTP and works on the presentation layer.

HTTP is a combination of HTTP and SSL which uses encryption to create and provide a safe and secure surfing experience. It involves the application layer, the session layer, and the transport layer in its working.

In short, SSL is more secure in comparison to HTTPS in terms of security.

24. What is the Difference Between Symmetric and Asymmetric Encryption?

Symmetric Encryption

  • One key is sufficient for encryption and decryption
  • Encryption is a fast process in this segment
  • It is used to transfer huge volumes of data
  • Uses fewer resources in comparison to an asymmetric inscription
  • The ciphertext is usually of the same size or smaller than the plain text.
  • Ex- AES, DES

Asymmetric Encryption

  • Encryption and decryption are done by two keys respectively.
  • The encryption process in this segment is slow.
  • It is used to transfer a small volume of data.
  • It uses more resources in comparison to symmetric data
  • The ciphertext is of the same size or is greater than the plain text
  • Ex- DSA and RSA

25. What is the Meaning of a DDoS Attack? How can Anyone Prevent it?

The DDoS attack is a kind of cyber threat or attack in which the fraudsters use internet traffic to make illegitimate requests disrupting the target’s regular traffic. This kind of request finds its origin in a variety of IP addresses causing problems in the working of the systems resulting in overloading of servers which slows down or shuts the computers and prevents the organization from fulfilling its responsibilities.

26. How DDOS Attacks can be Prevented?

       DDOS attacks can be prevented using the following methods-

  • Enhance the service response strategy
  • Maintain the integrity of your network infrastructure.
  • Look after the integrity of your network security
  • Develop a sturdy architecture of the network
  • Be alert to the warning signs
  • Consider DDoS as a service

27. What is the Difference Between IDS and IPS in the Reference to Cyber Security?

An intrusion detection system (IDS) keeps an eye on the traffic signal and alerts when the attackers make attempts to infiltrate the network or try to steal data using a ‘cyber threat’. IDS maintains vigil for security policy violations, malware, and port scanners. It compares the current network to the threat database which occurred to its knowledge.

IPS on the other hand find their place between the outside world and the internal network as a firewall. If it encounters a security hazard, IPS prohibits a known security hazard based on a security profile

An IDS is denoted as a monitoring system, on the other hand, an IPS is denoted as a control system. IDS keeps the network packets unchanged but IPS block the delivery of the packet depending on the contents of the packet. This process is similar to blocking the firewall blocks based on IP address.   

28. What is the Meaning of Network Sniffing?

It is the technique of evaluating the delivery of data packets across a network. This evaluation can be completed with the help of specialized software or hardware. Network sniffing fulfills a variety of purposes, such as-

  • Capture password and other confidential information
  • Be active in chat messaging
  • Over a network, keep an eye on a data package.
  • Keep an eye over the data package in a network 

 29. What is the Difference Between Black Box Testing and White Box         Testing?

Black box testing

  • It conceals the internal structure of the program or software.
  • Prior experience is not necessary
  • It can be re-initiated based on the requirement specifications paper.
  • It takes the least time as compared to others
  • It tests the behavior of the software
  • Is related to higher-level testing of software

White-box testing

  • The person testing the software is somewhat familiar with the software’s internal structure or code.
  • Prior experience is not required to implement it.
  • It begins after the detailed design document is complete.
  • It requires too much time.
  • It tests the software logically.
  • It is more relevant to software testing.

 30. What is the Meaning of System Hardening?

Its main objective is to minimize the security risks by minimizing the potential attacks and making arrangements to compress the stack surface of the system.

It includes hardening of -

  • databases
  • the operating system
  • the application
  • the server
  • the network

31. What is the Difference Between HIDS and NIDS?

HIDs keep an eye on the applications running, files accessed, and the stored information in the kernel logs. NIDs keep an eye on the flow of data between the computers also known as network traffic. They sniff the unusual activity, therefore they can identify a hacker much earlier before he could enter, o the other hand, HIDs do not notice anything suspicious till the hacker has entered the access system.

32. What is the Meaning of Domain Name System (DNS) Attack?

It is a kind of cyberattack where the cyber thieves try to utilize the weakness spread in the Domain name system which redirects users to the websites which are malicious and try to steal data from targeted machines. Being an important part of the DNS system poses a cyber security risk.

You can avoid them in the following manner-

  • Cross verify and examine the DNS zones in the system
  • Cross-check that your servers are up to current
  • The BIND version is undercover and is not displayed
  • Limited transfer between zones
  • DNS recursions must be disabled to avoid DNS poisoning attempts
  • Use separate DNS servers
  • Use DDOS mitigation service effectively

33. What is the Difference Between Stream Cipher and Block Cipher?

Stream Cipher and Block Cipher differ in the point that block cipher turns plain text into ciphertext (one block at a time) while stream cipher converts plain text into ciphertext ( one byte of plain text at a time).

Block Cipher

  • Converts plain text to ciphertext
  • It uses either 64 bits or more than 64 bits
  • It utilizes an Electronic codebook, common block cipher algorithm modes
  • It uses Caesar cypher and polygram substitution cipher and other transposition algorithms
  • It is slow in comparison to a stream cypher.

Stream cypher

  • It takes one byte of plain text in one instance which is converted to cypher text.
  • It uses 8 bits.
  • It utilizes cypher feedback (CFB) and outdoor feedback (OFB)
  • Much slower than a black cypher  

34. What is the Difference Between Spear Phishing and Phishing?

Spear phishing is an assault targeting a few high-valued targets (usually only one). It operates by sending bulk messages or emails to a big group of people. Through this, we can conclude that spear phishing is more personalized and researched, on the other hand, phishing acts like fishing the trick where the person himself gets caught in the trick.

35. Explain Cryptography and its Significance in Cyber Security?

Cryptography is the study of securing communications mechanisms like email ensuring accessibility and readability of only the sender and intended recipient of the message. Crypto is derived from the Greek word "Kryptos," denoting "hidden." It is tied to encryption, which is the process of converting plain text to ciphertext and then back when it's received.

Cryptography also involves techniques for obscuring information in photos, such as microdots and merging.

Encrypting and decrypting email and other plain-text messages is the most prevalent usage of cryptography when transporting electronic data. The symmetric or "secret key" approach is the most basic method. The secret key embeds encrypted data and subsequently, the encoded message and secret key are sent to the receiver for decoding.

What is the issue? A third party has all they need to decrypt and read the message if it is intercepted. Cryptologists invented the asymmetric or "public key" scheme to address this problem. Every user has two keys in this case: one public and one private. Senders encrypt the message and transmit it along after requesting the recipient's public key. Only the recipient's private key can decode the message when it arrives, therefore theft is useless without the associated private key.

36. What is a Port Scan Attack and What are the Mechanisms to Prevent    Such Attack?

A port scan is a technique used by hackers to find open doors or weak points in a network. A port scan attack assists cyber attackers in locating open ports and determining whether they are receiving or transmitting data. It can also tell whether an organization employs active security measures such as firewalls.

Cybersecurity Threats frequently employ port scanning to look for weak servers. It's frequently used to assess an organization's security, establish whether it has adequate firewalls, and identify susceptible networks or servers. TCP methods can also be used by attackers to conceal their location.

37. What are the Mechanisms to Prevent a Port Scanning Attack?

Having effective, up-to-date threat intelligence that is in sync with the developing threat landscape is essential for preventing a port scan attack. Strong security software, port scanning tools, and security alerts are also required by businesses to monitor ports and prevent bad actors from accessing their network. IP scanning, Nmap, and Netcat are all useful tools. The following tools are vital in securing a strong security system by organizations to ward off Port scanning attacks: 

A robust firewall: A firewall can protect a company's private network against illegal access. It manages the visibility of ports and detects when a port scan is running before turning it down.

TCP wrappers: These give administrators the power to allow or restrict access to servers depending on IP addresses and domain names.

Discover network flaws: A port scanner can be used to see if more ports are open than are required. They must inspect their systems regularly to disclose any potential weak points or vulnerabilities that an attacker could exploit.

38. Explain Ethical Hacking. What are the Benefits of Ethical Hacking for    Organizations?

Ethical hacking is defined as a legal attempt to gain unauthorized access to a computer system, application, or data. An aspect of carrying out an ethical hack involves replicating the techniques and habits of hostile attackers.

Such an approach aids in the detection of security flaws, which can subsequently be addressed before a malicious attacker has a chance to exploit them.

The benefits of Ethical Hacking are: 

Addressing weak areas of an organization's network by spotting vulnerabilities from the attacker's perspective

Setting up secure networking to do away with security breaches

Defending national security by preventing terrorists from accessing data.

Customers' and investors' trust will be earned by assuring the security of their products and data.

Assist in protecting networks by implementing real-world assessments

39. What is meant by Data Leakage and What are the Different Types?

The purposeful or unintentional transportation of data from within an organization to an external, unauthorized destination is known as data leakage. It is the unintentional revealing of confidential information to a third party.

Data leakage can be classified into three types based on how it occurs:

Accidental Breach: Due to a flaw or a blunder, an entity unintentionally sends data to an unauthorized person.

Intentional Breach: An authorized entity intentionally sends data to an unauthorized entity.

Hacking the System: Data leaking is caused via hacking techniques.

To prevent the occurrence of data leakage, there are Data Loss Prevention tools, software, and methods. 

40. What is the Procedure for Resetting or Removing the BIOS password? 

The BIOS password can be reset or removed in a variety of ways: 

  • Taking out the CMOS battery 
  • Using computer software 
  • Using MS-DOS as a command
  •  Using the jumper on the motherboard
  • Using the BIOS password for the backdoor

41. What are Polymorphic Viruses, and How do they Work?

Polymorphic viruses are advanced file infectors that may construct several copies of themselves to avoid detection while preserving the same basic behavior after each infection. Polymorphic viruses encrypt their code and use different encryption keys for each infection to change their physical file makeup.

Polymorphic viruses use mutation engines to modify their decryption routines every time they infect a machine. Traditional security solutions may overlook these because traditional security solutions do not use static, unchanging code. Because they use sophisticated mutation engines that generate billions of decryption procedures, they are much more difficult to discover.

42. What are the Red and Blue Teams in Cyber security and How are they Different from Each Other?

Cyberwarfare is represented by the red and blue teams. Many companies divide their security teams into two groups: red and blue.

The term "red team" refers to an attacker who targets security flaws in a company.

A defender who detects and patches vulnerabilities into successful breaches is referred to be a member of the blue team.

43. What Exactly is Malware?

Malware is a term used to describe a program or file that is designed to harm your computer, network, or website. These cyberthreats infiltrate your computer in order to collect sensitive data, interrupt operations, or spy on your online activities.

Viruses, Ransomware, Trojans, Spyware, Keyloggers, and Worms are all examples of malware.

44. What is Ransomware and How Does it Work?

Ransomware is a sort of cyberattack in which the attacker demands payment in exchange for access to your system or files. Scareware, lock-screen ransomware, and encryption ransomware are all common types of ransomware assaults.

 45. What is the Definition of a Cybersecurity Risk Assessment?

A cybersecurity risk assessment identifies and evaluates the information assets that are vulnerable to cyber-attacks such as customer data, hardware, and laptops as well as the threats that may affect those assets. It is primarily used to detect, assess, and prioritize risks inside businesses.

The best way to assess cybersecurity risks is to look for:

  • Threats to your company that are relevant
  • Vulnerabilities both within and outside
  • Evaluate the impact of vulnerabilities if they are exploited.

 46. What does ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) do?

ARP -Address Resolution Protocol is a protocol for mapping IP network addresses to physical addresses, such as Ethernet addresses. ARP is significant since today's most prevalent level of internet protocol (IP) is 32 bits long and MAC addresses are 48 bits long. 

 47. Differentiate a False positive from a False Negative in IDS?

A false positive is seen as a false alarm, whereas a false negative is regarded as the most difficult state.

When an IDS raises an alarm for lawful network activity, this is known as a false positive. When an IDS fails to detect malicious network traffic, a false-negative results.

In comparison to both, a false positive is preferable to a false negative because it results in incursions that go unnoticed.

48. What are the Dangers of Using Public Wi-Fi?

There are numerous security risks with public Wi-Fi. Some of them are Karma attacks, sniffer, war-driving, brute force attacks, and other Wi-Fi attacks. Data transferred through a network device, such as emails, browser history, passwords, and credit card information, may be identified by public Wi-Fi.

49. Explain what Cross-Site Scripting is and How it Works.

Malicious scripts are injected into websites through a network security vulnerability known as cross-site scripting. When attackers allow an untrusted source to inject code into a web application, this is known as a cross-site scripting attack.

50. What is a Remote Desktop Protocol, and How Does it Work? 

RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) is a technical standard for remotely accessing a computer's desktop. RDP, Independent Computing Architecture (ICA), and virtual network computing (VNC) are some of the protocols that remote desktop applications can employ, although RDP is the most used. RDP was first released by Microsoft and is compatible with most Windows operating systems, although it can also be used with Macs.

51. What is Forward Secrecy?

Forward secrecy is a property of several key agreement protocols that assures that even if the server's private key is compromised, the session keys are not compromised. Another name for it is perfect forward secrecy (PFS).

52. What is Meant by the Chain of Custody?

The chance of data being supplied as it was initially acquired and not being modified before being admitted into evidence is referred to as chain of custody.

In legal words, it's a chronological documentation/paper trail that documents the right sequence of electronic or physical evidence custody, control, analysis, and disposition.

53. Give Some Symmetric Encryption Algorithm Examples?

Some symmetric encryption algorithms are listed below.

  • RCx 
  • Blowfish 
  • Rijndael (AES)
  • DES

54. Define Authenticode?

Authenticode is a technique that allows you to find out who created your Authenticode sign software. It helps users to verify that the software is legitimate and free of malicious code.

 55. Explain what Social Engineering is and How it Works?

The term "social engineering" refers to the process of persuading someone to expose confidential information. Social engineering assaults can be classified into three categories: 1) human-based, 2) mobile-based, and 3) computer-based.

  • Human-based attack: They may impersonate a legitimate user who seeks higher authority to divulge the organization's private and secret information.
  • Attacks on the computer: In this type of assault, attackers send bogus emails to harm the computer. They request that such emails be forwarded.
  • Mobile-Based Attack: The attacker may send SMS messages to others in order to gather sensitive information. If a user installs a rogue program, it can be used to gain access to authentication data.

56. What is the Difference Between IP and MAC addresses?

The Internet Protocol address is abbreviated as IP address. On a computer network, an internet protocol address is used to uniquely identify a computer or device, such as printers or storage discs.

The word MAC stands for Media Access Control Address. At the physical layer of the network, MAC addresses are used to uniquely identify network interfaces for communication.

 57. Differentiate Worm and Virus?

Let us differentiate the two by taking three aspects:

  1. Infecting a computer: While Virus transfers or inserts malicious code into a file or program, Worm attacks by creating copies and sending them out via email.  
  2. Dependency: Viruses require a host program to function. However, Worms do not require a host in order to function properly.
  3. Linkage: Viruses are connected to files ending,.xls,.exe,.doc, and so on. Worms can be connected to any file on a network.
  4. Speed of Impacting: Viruses move more slowly than worms. A worm is faster than a virus.

58. Give Some Examples of Packet Sniffing Tools?

The following are some packet sniffing tools.

  • Tcpdump 
  • Kismet 
  • Wireshark 
  • NetworkMiner 
  • Dsniff

59. Make a list of the Many Forms of Sniffing Attacks?

Sniffing attacks come in a variety of forms:

  • Protocol Sniffing
  • Application-level Sniffing
  •  Web password Sniffing
  • LAN Sniffing 
  • LAN Sniffing 
  • TCP Session Sniffing
  • ARP Sniffing

60. Explain What the term "Session Hijacking" Means?

The misuse of a legal computer session is known as TCP session hijacking. The most prevalent method of session hijacking is IP spoofing. Attackers employ IP packets to implant a command between two network nodes in this manner.

61. Describe the Different Types of Session Hijacking?

Session hijacking can be done in a number of ways:

  • Utilizing Packet Sniffers
  •  IP Spoofing 
  • Blind Attack Sniffs 
  • Cross-Site Scripting (XSS Attack)

62. Explain Security Audit and its Significance?

Many managed security service providers (MSSPs) offer a network security audit to their clients. The MSSP looks into the customer's cybersecurity policies and network assets to see if there are any flaws that could put the customer in danger of a security breach.

Network security audits are crucial because they help you discover your company's major security threats so you can make adjustments to safeguard them. That's a fairly well-known fact.  You should conduct such audits at least once a year.

63. What is the Procedure for Setting up a Firewall?

To set up a Firewall involves the following steps:

  • Change the default password for a firewall device's username and password.
  • Administration via the internet: Disable the remote administration feature. 
  • Port forwarding is the process of sending data from one computer to another. Configure appropriate port forwarding for particular programs, such as a web server or an FTP server, to perform effectively. 
  • Server for DHCP: Unless the firewall's DHCP is disabled, installing a firewall on a network with an existing DHCP server will result in a conflict. 
  • Logging: To fix firewall problems or potential assaults, make sure logging is turned on and that you know how to read logs. 
  • Policies: Make sure you have strong security policies in place and that the firewall is set to enforce them.

64. Explain ARP and its Functionality?

The ARP also known as Address Resolution Protocol, is a mechanism that maps an Internet Protocol address to a physical machine address to a local network. When an incoming packet from a specific local area network's host machine arrives at a gateway, it tells the ARP program to hunt for a physical host or MAC address that matches the IP address. The ARP software looks for the address in the ARP cache and returns it if it is found, so the packet can be changed to the proper length and format before being sent to the machine. Whether no record for the IP address is found, ARP sends a request packet to all the machines on the LAN in a specific format to see if any of them are aware that they have that IP address.

65. Explain Address Resolution Protocol Poisoning?

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Poisoning could be a variety of cyber-attack that uses a network device to convert scientific discipline addresses to physical addresses. On the network, the host sends an associate degree artist broadcast, and also the receiver machine responds with its physical address.

ARP poisoning is the practice of causation counterfeit addresses to a switch so it will associate them with the scientific discipline address of a legitimate machine on the network and hijack traffic.

66. What Exactly Do You Mean When You Say SQL Injection? What can        You Do to Avoid it?

SQL injection is a common assault in which criminals use malicious SQL scripts to modify backend databases and get access to confidential information. The hostile actor can read, alter, or destroy vital company data, customer lists, or customers' personal information contained in the SQL database after the attack is successful.

The following guidelines will assist you in avoiding SQL Injection attacks:

  • Prepare your statements in advance.
  • Use Procedures That Have Been Pre-Defined
  • Make sure the user's input is correct

67. Explain Cognitive Cybersecurity, and How Does it Work?

Cognitive cybersecurity is the use of artificial intelligence (AI) technology to detect risks and secure physical and digital systems based on human mental processes.

Data mining, pattern recognition, and natural language processing are used in self-learning security systems to replicate the human brain, although in a high-powered computer model.

68. Differentiate SSL from TLS?

SSL is designed to confirm the sender's identity, but it doesn't look for anything else. SSL can assist you in tracking the person with whom you are conversing, but it can also be deceived at times.

TLS, like SSL, is an identification tool, but it has more security features. It adds another layer of security to the data, which is why SSL and TLS are frequently used together for enhanced security.

69. Explain the Concept of Salted Hashes?

Salt is a set of random data. When a password system is correctly safeguarded, it generates a hash value for the password, a random salt value, and then stores the combined result in its database. This provides protection against dictionary and known hash attacks.

Example: If the same password is used on two different systems with the same hashing technique, the hash value will be the same; but, if one of the systems mixes salt with the hashes, the result will be different.

70. Explain the Concept of Port Blocking Within LAN?

Port blocking is the process of preventing users from accessing a set of services on a local area network.

Stopping the source from using ports to communicate with the destination node. Because the program uses ports, ports are restricted to limit access, closing security gaps in the network infrastructure.

71. How Often Should Patch Management be Performed?

Patch management should begin as soon as the patch is available. When a patch for Windows is released, it should be applied to all machines within one month. The same is true for network devices; apply the patch as soon as it is available. Patch management should be done correctly.

72. What is Trojan?

A Trojan horse is a dangerous virus or software that looks to be lawful but has the power to take control of your machine. It is a computer program that is designed to hurt, disrupt, steal, or otherwise harm your data or network. Trojan beguiles you by dissimulating as genuine. It tries to get you to download and run malware on your computer.. Once installed, a Trojan can carry out the function for which it was created.

73. What is the Difference Between a Security Threat and a Physical            Threat?

A security threat is described as a risk that has the potential to steal confidential information and cause harm to computer systems and organizations.

A physical threat to computer systems is a potential cause of an occurrence that could result in data loss or physical damage.

74. Give Examples of Threats that are Non-Physical Threats?

Some examples of non-physical threats are as follows:

  • Theft of confidential information
  • Data loss or corruption in the system
  • Cyber security is important. Breaches
  • Business operations that rely on computers will be disrupted.
  • Surveillance of computer systems in an unauthorized manner

75. Explain the OSI Model and its Various Layers?

The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a reference model for how applications interact over a computer network. It is made up of seven layers, as indicated below:

  • Physical Layer: This is the lowest level in the OSI model. Data is turned into an electrical impulse and transmitted via physical media in this case. It's also in charge of the actual link between the devices.
  • Data Link Layer: The data packet is encoded and decoded into bits at this layer. This layer investigates message transport from node to node.
  • Network Layer: Datagrams are transported from one layer to the next at this layer. Routing and logical addressing are the functions here.
  • Transport Layer: This layer is in charge of establishing end-to-end connections. Segments are the data in this layer. TCP and UDP protocols are used here.
  • Session Layer: Signals between computers are controlled by the session Layer. This layer is responsible for establishing, maintaining, and terminating connections between processes.
  • Presentation Layer: This layer is in charge of converting data into application layer format. The data is structured and encrypted here before being transmitted to the next layer.
  • Application Layer: Finally, services are given to end-users at the application layer. The application layer deals with any data generated by a machine's program, such as user input such as a password, and so on.

76. Define the Terms "Unicast," "Multicast," and "Broadcast." ?

The three methods by which we transmit data over a network are Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast.

  • Unicast: It distributes data from a single source to a single recipient. This is what we utilize for point-to-point communication.
  • Multicast: In a Multicast scenario data is sent from one or more sources to several destinations
  • Broadcast: Broadcast is also known as one-to-all communication, in which a single user communicates with multiple recipients.

77. What are the Benefits of Employing Distributed Processing?

Distributed processing refers to the utilization of several processors to run an application on a computer system. The same CPU is shared by multiple computers in various places. The following are some of the benefits of distributed processing:

  • Data Recovery: If one computer loses data, it can be recovered by another associated computer.
  • Reliability: Any malfunction in one piece of equipment has no bearing on the processing because multiple other units are used.
  • Lower Cost: Instead of employing more expensive mainframe equipment, several low-cost minicomputers are utilized.
  • Easy to expand: Depending on the amount of data to be processed, we can add more machines to the network.

78. Define TCP?

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a set of internet communication protocols that connect network devices. By offering end-to-end communication, it dictates how data should be delivered across the internet.

79. Define ipconfig?

ipconfig (Internet Protocol Configuration) is a command for viewing and configuring the network interface in Microsoft Windows. This command can be used to display all of the TCP/IP network summary information that is currently accessible on a network. It also aids in the modification of the DHCP protocol and DNS settings.

80. Define ifconfig?

ifconfig is Interface configuration, a command employed on operating systems like UNIX, Linux, and Mac OS X, etc. From the Command Line Interface, this command is used to configure and control the TCP/IP network interface parameters. The IP addresses of these network interfaces can also be viewed.

81. Describe Data Encapsulation in Networking?

The technique of adding headers and trailers to data is known as data encapsulation. The data link layer joins each packet into a frame that includes the source and destination computers' hardware addresses.

82. Differentiate between Domain and Work Group?

A domain is a network model that is centralized A workgroup is a decentralized model. In a Domain model, a single administrator controls the management of the domain and its resources in a workgroup model managing the resources is done by every single user on their PCs individually. While Domain is ideal for large networks, Workgroup is suitable only for small networks. Workgroup entails computers to be connected to the same LAN, computers may be connected to any network in the domain model.

83. What are the Various Types of Malware?

There are multiple types of Malware that can spring from various sources as listed below: 

  • Pop-ups
  • Removable Media
  • Executable Files and Documents
  • Downloads from the internet
  • Links to the internet
  • Attachments to emails
  • Deceptive Advertisements

84. What is Use-Case testing, and How Does it Work?

Use case testing is a strategy for identifying test cases that span the full system from start to finish, transaction by transaction. It's a description of a user's specific use of the system. It is commonly utilized in the development of tests or systems for determining acceptable levels.

There will be a set of steps for the user to accomplish in a use case as follows:

  • Withdraw funds
  •  Balance inquiry
  •  Balance transfer
  •  other activities related to the software being built

85. What is the Distinction Between a Use Case and a Test Case?

These two concepts are the most significant in the subject of software testing, and they are also closely related, but from different perspectives. A Use Case is a document that describes how to use a system to execute a certain task. A Test Case is a collection of test inputs, execution conditions, and expected results that lead to the development of a specific test goal.

A use case is a diagrammatic portrayal of a document that defines how to do a specific activity. It is not a part of the execution. While test cases are used to evaluate software that's been produced by testers to see if it's working as expected.

86. What are the Different Tiers of Testing in Software Testing?

The varied layers of Software testing are listed below:

  • Module testing: examines a program's subprograms, procedures, routines, and subroutines.
  • Integration testing: This is when the various components of a software application are tested to see if they work together properly.
  • System testing: examines the complete system, including software and applications.
  • Acceptance testing: is performed by the quality assurance team to determine whether or not the client's requirements have been met.

87. What are the Essential Measures for Resolving Problems During            Testing?

To resolve problems during testing, take the following steps:

  • Record: Keep track of any issues that arise and work to remedy them.
  • Report: Issues should be reported to higher-level managers.
  • Control: Define the issue-resolution procedure.

88. Elucidate on the Types of Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Attacks?

 XSS attacks can be classified into three categories:

  • Non-Persistent XSS Attack — In this case, the attacker's data is mirrored in the response and is linked to the XSS vector.
  • Persistent XSS attack - It is the most dangerous sort of XSS attack, in which the script runs every time a user accesses the page.
  • XSS based on the Document Object Model (DOM) — A sophisticated sort of XSS attack that occurs when a web application adds data to the DOM without any sanitization.

89. Define Synchronous Transmission?

Continuous data streaming in the form of signals, accompanied by regular time signals, is referred to as synchronous transmission. External clocking mechanisms generate these signals, which ensure that senders and receivers are in sync.

90. What is an Asynchronous Transmission, and How Does it Work?

The serial way of transmission is the asynchronous transmission. It's a data transfer method in which each character is a self-contained unit. Each character has its own beginning and end bits, as well as an asymmetrical delay between them, in asynchronous transmission.

91. What are Proxy Servers and How do They Safeguard Computer              Networks?

Proxy servers prevent external users from determining an internal network's IP addresses. They render a network virtually invisible to external users, who are unable to determine a network's physical location without knowing the precise IP address.

 92. What is the Difference Between a Firewall and an Antivirus?

Firewall - A firewall protects private networks such as intranets from illegal access. It does not, however, provide protection against viruses, spyware, or adware. while antivirus software protects a computer from dangerous software, including viruses, spyware, and adware.

93. Explain What are Rainbow Tables?

Rainbow tables are pre-computed tables that are used to reverse cryptographic hash algorithms. These rainbow tables have a large number of hash function inputs and associated outputs.

94. What is Authentication and What are its Various Forms?

Authentication is a process that verifies a user's credentials before granting access to a system, network, or device. The following are the various forms of authentication:

  • Single-factor authentication: It is the most basic and widely used method of authentication. To allow access to a system, this method just requires one verification method, such as a password or a security pin.
  • Two-factor authentication (also known as 2FA) entails the use of a second factor to confirm a user's identity. You must input the username, password, and OTP or PIN for verification using this method.
  • Multi-factor authentication (MFA) entails the use of two or more distinct methods to identify a user, such as codes generated by the user's smartphone, Captcha tests, fingerprints, or facial recognition.
  • Biometric authentication (BFA) entails the use of a username, password, and biometric verification, such as voice recognition, fingerprint scanning, eye scanning, or face scanning.

95. Explain in Brief About Cyber Espionage?

Cyber espionage is the process of obtaining sensitive corporate documents through an illegal network or system access. It employs malicious techniques to gain access to a company's or government agency's confidential/sensitive information without the owner's permission or knowledge. The goal of cyber espionage is to harm or misuse the data that has been compromised.

96. How Can IoT Devices be Protected Against Cyberattacks?

The below security features can help protect IoT devices from cyberattacks by enhancing their security:

  • Use of cryptographic code signing techniques for secure boot.
  • TLS, DTLS, and IPSec are security protocols that are used in secure communication.
  • It ensures that only software from the device's OEM or another trustworthy entity is used to update the device's firmware.
  • Data security: all sensitive data stored on the IoT device is encrypted.
  • Authentication is the process of verifying the credentials of users who request access to a device.

97. What are the Meltdown and Spectre Mulnerabilities?

Meltdown and Spectre are processing flaws that take advantage of fundamental flaws in current processors. They allow hackers to grab data that is presently being processed and save it in the computer's cache. As a result, Meltdown and Spectre can access data stored in the memory of other applications that are now running. Passwords saved in the browser, emails, instant messaging, and critical corporate papers are all examples.

98. Differentiate XSS Stored from XSS Reflected?

Saved XSS Attacks - These are attacks in which the injected scripts are persistently stored on the target servers. When the victim requests information from the server, the malicious script is downloaded.

Reflected XSS Attacks - In this attack, the user must first send the request, after which it will run on the victim's browser and return the results to the user who sent the request.

99. What is Patch Management's Purpose? 

Patch management is used to maintain diverse systems in a network up to date and protect them from malware and hacking threats. Many enterprise patch management technologies automate the patching process by installing or deploying agents on target computers, and they connect centralized patch servers to patched computers.

100. What's the Difference Between RSA and Diffie Hellman?

Diffie-Helman: It's a key exchange protocol in which two parties exchange a shared key that may be used by either party to encrypt or decode messages between them. 

The RSA method allows for public-key encryption and is widely used to protect sensitive data sent over an insecure network such as the internet.

101. What is the Definition of Active Reconnaissance?

Active reconnaissance is a sort of computer attack in which an intruder interacts with the target system to obtain information about security flaws. Attackers frequently utilize port scanning to identify vulnerable ports, after which they exploit the vulnerabilities of services that use open ports.

102. Which Patch Management Software or Solutions are the Best? What   is Their Purpose?

Patch management tools and solutions are used to keep a company's software and IT infrastructure current. Patch management programs track updates to various software and middleware solutions, alerting users to make necessary updates or automatically executing updates.

The top ten best patch management software or tools are listed below:

  • Atera
  • Acronis Cyber Protect Cloud
  • Acronis Cyber Protect 
  • Microsoft System Center
  • PDQ Deploy
  • SolarWinds Patch Manager
  • NinjaRMM
  • Automox
  • SolarWinds Patch Manager
  • SmartDeploy

103. What are the Many Indications of Compromise (IOC) that Businesses Should Keep an Eye on?

The following are the primary indicators of compromise that businesses should keep an eye on:

  • HTML Response Sizes 
  • Geographical Disturbances
  • Log-in Red Flags
  • Patching Systems Unexpectedly
  • Requests for the same file in large numbers
  • Unhuman Behavior on the Internet
  • Changes to the registry or system files that are suspicious
  • DNS Requests that are not usual
  • Changes in Mobile Device Profiles
  • Data Bundles in the Wrong Place
  • Traffic from mismatched ports and applications
  • Signs of a DDoS Attack
  • Privileged User Account Activity Anomalies

104. What are Some of the Most Often Used Hashing Functions and Algorithms?

The following is a list of some of the most commonly used hashing functions and algorithms:

  • Algorithm for Message Digestion (MD5): MD5, or Message-Digest Algorithm, is the most recent and sophisticated version of MD4. It was introduced as a result of serious security flaws discovered in MD4. For a variable length of inputs, MD5 is employed to generate 128-bit outputs. MD5 is the improved version of MD4 and its successor. It protects against a wide range of security threats, yet it falls short of providing complete data security. Although MD5 is one of the most extensively used algorithms, it has a number of flaws, the most serious of which is its vulnerability to collisions.
  • Secure Hashing Algorithm (SHA): The National Security Agency created the Secure Hashing Algorithm or SHA. It was later upgraded several times to address security problems in the original genre. Its most recent and powerful version, SHA-2, is used by numerous companies for cryptography applications.
  • Tiger Cipher Algorithm: When compared to Message Digest (MD5) and Secure Hashing Algorithm, Tiger Cipher Algorithm is faster and more efficient. It has a 192-bit hashing algorithm and is typically seen on newer PCs. The Tiger2 algorithm, which is more powerful than the Tiger algorithm, is its most recent and sophisticated version.
  • Ripmend Algorithm: The Ripmend cryptographic hashing algorithm was created by Hans Dobbertin. It features a 164-bit digest and was generated using the EU project RIPE framework.
  • Algorithm Whirlpool: The Whirlpool algorithm was created by Vincent Rijmen and Paul Barreto. It accepts messages of up to 2256 bits in length and returns a 512-bit message digest. Whirlpool-0 was the initial version, Whirlpool-T was the second, and Whirlpool is the most recent and advanced version.

105. How can One Safeguard and Protect Against Identity Theft?

To avoid identity theft the following steps are a necessity:

  • Keep your personal information safe.
  • Confidential information should not be shared online.
  • Maintain the security of your Social Security number.
  • Keep strong passwords and ensure regular updating of passwords
  • Avoid giving out bank account details on shady websites.
  • Install Advanced spyware and firewall tools 
  • Update your browsers, operating system, and software.

106. Name the Various Types of Operating Systems

The following are the numerous types of operating systems:

  • Batched Operating System: The computer operator groups jobs from input devices into batches.
  • Distributed Operating System: Many computers are linked together through communication networks in a distributed operating system.
  • Time-sharing operating system: A time-sharing operating system reduces reaction time.
  • Multi-programmed OS: To segregate jobs, the operating system employs CPU scheduling.
  • Real-time operating system: In this case, the operating system devotes as much time as possible to vital operations.

107. What are the Shells used in Linux?

In Linux, the following shells are used:

bash: Linux distributions have bourne again as its default shell, 

ksh: Korn shell is a high-level programming shell that has built-in operations and supports associative arrays.

csh: The C shell corrects spelling and manages jobs.

zsh: The Z shell has certain unique features, such as filename creation and startup files.

fish: A user-friendly interactive shell with features such as auto-suggestions, customizations, and more.

108. What are the Different Process States Involved in Linux?

The following are the Linux process states:

  • Ready: wherein the process has been built and is ready to run in this condition.
  • Running: This is where the process is being carried out.
  • Blocked or Wait: The procedure is blocked or waiting for input from the user in this stage.
  • Completed or Terminated: The procedure has either been completed or been terminated by the operating system.
  • Zombie: The process is terminated in this state, but the information is still stored in the process table.

109. What is Meant by Spoofing? 

Spoofing is when an attacker impersonates another person or organization and sends you a legitimate-looking email. The email appears to be almost genuine, making it difficult to detect a forgery.

110. What is Public Key Infrastructure? 

A collection of policies known as public key infrastructure (PKI) encrypts communication between a server and a client. It employs both public and private cryptographic keys. People can have trusted digital IDs thanks to PKI. Secure access to digital resources is provided by PKI. A certificate authority, which verifies the trustworthiness of digital data, is at the heart of PKI.

111. Explain the process of working on Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)

At a macro level, Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) works as follows:

  • First, the Digital Certificate request is sent to the relevant CA (Certificate Authority).
  • The Digital Certificate is issued to the individual who made the request once it has been processed.
  • Following that, the Digital Certificate is signed by proving the person's identity.
  • The Digital Certificate can now be used to encrypt the cleartext into ciphertext and send it from one side to the other.

112. What are Some of the RSA Alternatives?

The following are some alternatives to RSA:

  • Okta 
  • LastPass 
  • Google Authenticator
  • Duo Security

113. What is the Blowfish Algorithm, and How Does it Work?

It is a balanced symmetric encryption technique with a 64-bit key. Encryption and decryption are both done with the same secret key. Exclusive ors and additions on 32bit words are used in these procedures. The key is changeable and has a maximum length of 448 bits. It's also used to make a bunch of subkey arrays.

114. What are the Primary Goals of Contemporary Cryptography?

The following are the primary goals of modern cryptography:

  • Confidentiality: Confidentiality aids in the protection of information from unauthorized individuals.
  • Non-repudiation: In an electronic transaction, non-repudiation prohibits denial.
  • Authenticity: Authenticity aids in the identification of the information's source.
  • Integrity: It ensures that the data received by the receiver is not tampered with.

115. What is Virtual Memory, and How does it Work?

A storage allocation approach in which a secondary memory (hard drive) is employed as the primary memory is known as virtual memory (RAM).

A program's address to memory is different from the memory system's address to identify physical storage sites, and program-generated addresses are automatically translated to machine addresses. The quantity of secondary memory available is defined by the number of main storage sites available rather than the actual number of main storage locations, and the capacity of virtual storage is restricted by the computer system's addressing scheme.

116. What are the Different Types of Sniffing Devices?

 A list of a few sniffing tools is provided below: 

  • Wireshark: This program is used to thoroughly examine a network. TCPDUMP: This program analyses the packets that are sent over the network. 
  • MSN Sniffer 2 is a second-generation sniffer. The first chat sniffing program was MSN Sniffer 2.
  • Ettercap: This tool is ideal for the attacker in the center.
  • Dsniff is a tool for examining passwords and networks. 
  • EtherApe: It graphically depicts network activities.

117. What are Plaintext and Ciphertext, How are they Different from Each Other?

The plaintext is something that humans can comprehend and, or relate to. It may be a simple English phrase, a java code, or a script. Texts that are readable and understandable, and which aren't encrypted are plaintext.

Ciphertext, often known as encrypted text, is a series of randomized characters and numbers that are incomprehensible to humans. When a plaintext message is processed through an encryption technique, it is converted to ciphertext. The ciphertext can be reversed to disclose the original plaintext through the decryption procedure.

118. Briefly Explain What SAFER is?

SAFER stands for Secure and Fast Encryption Routine. It is a block cypher. The block size is 64 bits, and the algorithm is byte-oriented. The encryption and decryption procedures used by SAFER are extremely secure. This technology is commonly employed in applications such as electronic payment cards.

119. What Security Measures will you use to Protect a Server?

A secure server encrypts and decrypts data to protect it from unauthorized access using the Secure Socket Layer (SSL) protocol.

You can secure a server by employing the steps given below:

Step 1: Create a password for the root and administrator users.

Step 2: Create new administrators for the system.

Step 3: Administrator/default root accounts should not have remote access.

Step 4: Set up remote access firewall rules

120. List some Web-based Service Desk Tools

These are some examples of web-based service desk tools.

  • CA service desk
  •  BMC
  • ServiceNow 
  • Oracle Service Cloud
  • Tivoli 
  • SolarWinds Web Help Desk 
  • Spiceworks Help Desk/Cloud Help Desk


You can prepare by referring to the offered answers for each of these concept-based cyber security questions now that you know the many cyber security interview questions that can be raised to you while you sit for an interview.

We looked at a variety of cyber security interview questions that covered topics such as networking, Cryptography, software and programming, Applications and operating systems, and cyberattacks. We are confident that this article is helpful and informative for your interview preparation. Should you have any queries you would like to know further, our experts are very ready to assist you.

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